Saturday, October 1, 2011

Parliament of Georgia!

Parliament of Georgia is the supreme legislature of Georgia. It is unicameral and has 150 members, known as deputies, from which 75 members are proportional representatives and 75 are elected through single-member district plurality system, representing their constituencies.

All members of the Parliament are elected for four years on the basis of universal human suffrage.

The Constitution of Georgia grants Parliament of Georgia central legislative power, which is limited by the Parliaments of the autonomous republics of Adjara and Abkhazia.

In the view Queen Tamar's oppositionists and their leader, Arslan the first Georgian Parliament was to be formed of two "Chambers": a) Darbazi – or assembly of aristocrats and influential citizens who would meet from time to time to take decisions on the processes occurring in the country, the implementation of these decisions devolving on the monarch.Subsequently, it was only in 1906 that the Georgians were afforded the opportunity of sending their representatives to a Parliamentary body of Government, to the Second State Duma (from 1801 Georgia had been incorporated in the Russian Empire).

In 1918 the first Georgian National Parliament was founded in the already independent Georgia. In 1921 the Parliament adopted the first Georgian Constitution. However, shortly after the adoption of the Constitution, Georgia was occupied by the Bolshevik Red Army.The construction of the parliament building started in 1938 and completed in 1953, when Georgia was still a part of Soviet Union. It was designed by architects Victor Kokorin and Giorgi Lezhava.On May 26, 1991 Georgia’s population elected the Chairman of the Supreme Council Zviad Gamsakhurdia as President of the country.
The tension between the ruling and opposition parties gradually intensified, which in 1991-92 developed into an armed conflict. The President left the country, the Supreme Soviet ceased to function and power was taken over by the Military Council.In 1995, the newly elected Parliament adopted a new Constitution. Georgia now has a semi-presidential system with a unicameral parliament. In 2011 Mikheil Saakashvili the president of Georgia signed the amendment of constitution which located the parliament in Kutaisi.

The Georgian Parliament is the country’s Supreme representative body which effects legislative authority, determines the main directions of the country’s home and foreign policy, controls the activity of the Government within limits defined by the Constitution and exercises other rights.

The Parliament is chaired by its speaker. Zurab Zhvania held the post of speaker from November 1995 until he broke with then-President Eduard Shevardnadze and resigned from the post on November 1, 2001. At the close of a "marathon" session, Nino Burjanadze was elected speaker on November 10, 2001.
According to the Constitution, the President of Georgia, a Parliamentary committee, a Parliamentary faction, a member of the parliament, the supreme representative bodies of Abkhazia and Ajaria, or not less than 30,000 electors have the right to initiate legislation.
Parliamentary committees and the President are the chief initiators of legislative proposals in Georgia . A draft law, prepared on the committee or received through legislative initiative, is discussed at a meeting of the relevant committee.Before the committee decides to submit the draft law to the plenary session it arranges a committee reading. The reading is conducted in public. Information about the committee reading is disseminated through the mass media by the Parliamentary Press-Center, at least 7 days in advance. If the committee decides that the draft is ready for discussion at the plenary meeting, it is passed on to the Staff of the Parliament.
The Parliament meets twice a year: for the spring and autumn sessions. The spring session opens on the first Tuesday of February and closes on the last Friday of June. The autumn session opens on the first Tuesday of September and closes on the third Friday of December.

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